Black pepper oil (Piper nigrum)

Native to Asia, this woody plant climbs as high as 20 feet in the wild, with spikes containing up to sixty berries. These are harvested, unripe, at full size, and dried in the sun to develop both flavour and colour. The blackening occurs due to enzymes in the berries and the outer surface becomes wrinkled.

Pepper has been among the most important spices used around the world for thousands of years. Initially, it was used medicinally and later added to food for its fl